Baseline Survey – Terms of Reference
- About the organisation
Vi Agroforestry is a Swedish development organisation, fighting poverty and improving the environment through agroforestry. We work in Kenya, Rwanda, Uganda and Tanzania − four countries that are severely affected by deforestation and climate change. Since its inception in 1983, Vi Agroforestry has been working with smallholder farmer families living in poverty, with a special focus on women, youth and children, who are members or potential members of democratic farmers’ organisations. With its rich experience, knowledge and technical expertise on Sustainable Agriculture Land Management (SALM) practices, enterprise development, gender equality, and multi-stakeholder actions, Vi Agroforestry submitted an application to European Union delegation in Tanzania to contribute to an inclusive and sustainable development of the coffee value chain for enhanced incomes and improved nutrition status of smallholder farmers in Ruvuma, Mbeya and Songwe regions of Tanzania.
- Background of the project
The Southern Highland regions are endowed with suitable land for production of high-quality coffee, with an enormous potential for expansion of production in the zone. The major challenges in coffee production includes low production of quality coffee and productivity, inadequacy of extension services, high price and low access to reliable agro-inputs, poor agronomic practices and instability of coffee price in the market, lack of financial institutions investing in the coffee value chain which could have enabled farmers to access reliable loans. Also, the challenges pertaining to gender and age biased involvement, particularly the involvement of young women and men in coffee value chain and decision making over the use of coffee revenues, need to be addressed. It is against this background Vi Agroforestry and co-applicants (TaCRI, ANSAF, BRAC and Cafe Africa) developed the project with the intention to catalyse the unlocking of the potential areas of interventions which are recommended under the Government of Tanzania development plans, and stakeholders’ consultations.
The overall objective of the proposed action is “To contribute to an inclusive and sustainable development of the coffee value chain for enhanced incomes and improved nutrition status of smallholder farmers in Ruvuma, Mbeya and Songwe regions of Tanzania”. To attain this, the action will work with 24,000 smallholder farmers, comprising of 14,400 young women (60% women) farmers and 9,600 young men (40% men) farmers between the age of 18-35 years. These youth famers are either the existing or potential members of the farmer cooperatives. The action will reach out to 60 AMCOS actively working in the targeted areas and will strengthen them into centres for providing and disseminating agricultural inputs, technology and information. The agriculture extension officers, being the custodians of policies, guidelines and plans at local levels, will be trained on SALM practices to equip them to advise smallholder coffee growers on best agricultural practices and crop husbandry.
- Overall Baseline Objective
The overall objective of the baseline survey is to establish benchmarks for effective project planning and implementation, as well as form the basis for the progressive monitoring of the achievement of the planned outputs and results, through the collection of quantitative and qualitative facts, figures and indicators of the situation at the beginning of the project. Furthermore, it will provide information on the specific issues and needs of stakeholders in the project area. The findings of which will be used to inform project implementation interventions. Primary data collection will identify the issues and bottlenecks within the coffee value chain.
3.1 Key Priority Areas of the baseline survey
SO1. Increased production and productivity of quality coffee by smallholder coffee producers through equitable, efficient resource allocations and SALM Practices. This specific objective will support young women and men smallholder coffee farmers and Agricultural and Marketing Co-operative Societies (AMCOS) in their efforts to rehabilitate ageing coffee trees by replanting and establishment of new farms with improved coffee species, implementation of various Sustainable Agricultural Land Management (SALM) practices for increased productivity, climate change adaptation and mitigations while ensuring efficient resources utilisation and allocations for enhanced coffee production. The action will also involve promoting the application of sustainable agricultural practices, including stumping, pruning, weeding, mulching, integrated pest management (IPM) and organic fertilizing/strengthening, along with facilitating the linkages of smallholder famers with existing agro-input suppliers and financial services institutions. The action will further support the smallholder famers to adopt integrated-diversified health nutrition practices (kitchen gardens, organic foods, traditional diets) to build their resilience to the climate shocks and ensure the production of a variety of affordable and nutritious, foods in adequate quantity and quality to meet dietary requirements of the households in a sustainable manner.
At the beginning of the project, the following information is needed:
- Mapping and justification of the potentials of the project area to be covered by the project.
- All the formal and informal community structures within the project area relevant for the implementation of the project.
- The areas (estimating the hectares) that require rehabilitation and potentials for expansion (establishment of new farms) and implementation of agroforestry within the project area.
- The key stakeholders (value chain actors) investing in the coffee value chain, their constraints, strengths and needs within the project area.
- Estimate the gender disaggregated human population within the project area
- Estimate the gender disaggregated human population within the project area (focusing on young women and men) currently sustainably benefitting from the coffee value chain.
- To establish the number of smallholder farmers registered under each AMCOS in the project areas.
- Established the quantity of coffee produced for the past 3 years under each AMCOS in the project area.
- Establish the quality of coffee directly exported from the project area at AMCOS level for the past 3 years.
- Established types and nature of Sustainable Agriculture Management Practices (SALM) adopted by farmers in the project area.
- Identify types of agroforestry tree species prioritized by farmers in the project area; their benefits and availability.
SO2. Increased incomes from improved postharvest, processing capacities and market linkages (smallholder farmers, women and men, small and medium enterprises – SME’s) and financial services linkages. In order to realise this objective, the proposed action will focus on encouraging the stakeholder’s for sustainable investment in the coffee value chain. The agro-input suppliers, Small and Medium Enterprises (SME’s), AMCOS, Local Government Authorities (LGAs), Financial and Research institutions will be involved to support farmers through adoption of better post-harvest practices as well as invest in processing mechanism for GHG reduction, improved quality of coffee, while creating the employment opportunities for young women and men farmers in the value chain. Linkages with the financial institutions will be facilitated to ensure the smallholder farmers get financial support (reliable and equitable loans) for investing in the production, processing and marketing of quality coffee. Smallholder farmers, and AMCOS will be empowered with techniques to access market information and financial services through use of digital systems. The use of digital systems will promote transparency on the value chain actors, prices and any other related market trends. Young women and men farmers will be sensitised and encouraged to sell their produce in the local markets directly and the proposed project will facilitate the market linkages.
At the beginning of the project, the following information is needed:
- Established the current status of per capital income of smallholder farmers within the project area and expected change in per capita income due to project activities
- Identified viable employment opportunities that can encourage young women and men to participate in the coffee value chain.
- Identified existing financial linkages for investment in the coffee value chain within the project area and assess possible new opportunities for investment.
- Establish existing postharvest practices within the project area and provide suggestion on possible area for improvement.
- Members of community currently generating income from sustainable livelihood enterprises within the project area
- Identify existing schemes for agro-input supply chain in the project areas, modalities, strengths and weakness and provide with suggestion on improvement.
- Establish information on the use of digital marketing systems and any other related market trends within the project area.
- Identify past sustainable and assess the current status farmers certification regimes in the project area.
SO3. Enhanced competitiveness of coffee value chain with supportive policy and regulatory framework. This specific objective aims at improving competitiveness of the coffee value chain through conducting evidence-based advocacy for adequate policy and regulatory frameworks pertaining to the coffee sector. The project through evidence-based advocacy dialogues will support realisation of three key human rights: equal rights between men and women, the right to adequate food and standard of living, and the right to a safe, healthy and ecologically balanced environment. The implementation will involve relevant institutions responsible for coffee sector including Ministry of Agriculture and sectoral departments such as Tanzania Coffee Board (TCB) and Local Government Authority (LGA). The objective will help to address the challenges related to weak institutional support to coffee farmers, low farmgate prices, poor extension services and inefficient marketing systems, that apparently has reduced competitiveness of the coffee value chain and will encourage an enabling overall regulatory framework for the smallholder farmers. Enabling policy environment will recite to strengthened strategic platforms and partnerships among coffee value chain actors leading to an improved sector governance and coordination. Appropriate policy, legal frameworks and other related regulations will encourage more actors to invest in the value chain, hence more employment opportunities for young women and men will be created.
At the beginning of the project, the following information is needed:
- Establish the existing policies and regulations on the coffee industry in the Country.
- To point out areas of conflicts within the existing policies and regulations.
- Establish the existing platforms on cooperatives voluntary sustainable certifications standards.
- To establish, if any evidence-based advocacy issues relatively to promotion of coffee value chain from the project area.
- Extent of community participation in implementation of the coffee policies and regulations.
- To map out national and regional stakeholders and actors in the thematic area
- Identify any conflict management mechanisms in various levels among coffee value chain actors
- Asses the activeness of the coffee value chain among all actors and provide with recommendations.
At overall level, the baseline needs to provide trackable figure on the following indicators:
- Proportion of households living below the national poverty line in the project areas
- Malnutrition cases amongst women and children of smallholder farmers families in the project areas
3.2 Area to be covered by the baseline survey and partners involved
The baseline survey will be conducted in Mbozi and Ileje Districts of Songwe region, Mbeya and Rungwe Districts of Mbeya region and in Mbinga and Nyasa Districts of Ruvuma region.
The baseline survey will be conducted by an external consultant who will lead the study team and will work under the supervision and support of: Project Coordinator for Vi Agroforestry who will be supported by project officers from all partners ANSAF, TaCRI, Café Africa and BRAC. The consultant is expected to come up with a detailed methodology for conducting the survey, taking into consideration the local context of the project area. The consultant will develop appropriate tools and will also propose an appropriate sampling methodology and size that is statistically valid and cost effective. The sample size and proposed tools will be discussed and approved by Vi Agroforestry management before the commencement of the survey.
The study should employ both quantitative and qualitative methods. The following data collection methods should be given due consideration while designing the research methodology.
- Secondary data collection that will involve review of specific project start up documents, monitoring and evaluation framework, other literature, documents and studies from Vi Agroforestry, ANSAF, TaCRI, BRAC, Café Africa, government departments and other NGOs, including CBOs.
- Primary data collection of both qualitative and quantitative data.
- Sample surveys to generate quantitative data from different target groups within the community
- Focus group discussions with young women and men and within the target communities (both pastoralist and farmers)
- Key informant interviews with, farmers cooperatives (AMCOS), Ministry of Agriculture, TCB, NGOs, Input suppliers, Financial institutions, transporting companies, coffee processors, local governments (Districts and Regional authorities), communities’ cultural leaders and partners
4.1 The expected outputs of the baseline survey.
- An inception report giving detailed baseline strategy, methodology and tools.
- A clear and concise well written baseline report containing lists and tables, facts and figures on the situation at the beginning of the project.
- Power point presentation of not more than 20 slides summarising the study
- Final workshop with Vi Agroforestry and its partners on the findings of the baseline. The final report will be submitted to Vi Agroforestry in English.
- Soft copy of all survey raw data and cleaned data used in analysis
4.2 Outline of the baseline report
The baseline report will contain the different elements mentioned below:
- Cover page
- Table of contents
- An executive summary that can be used as a document. It should include the methodology, major findings of the baseline and summarise conclusions and recommendations.
- The objectives of the baseline
- The main question or central survey question and derived sub-questions.
- A justification of the methods and techniques used (including relevant underlying values and assumptions, theories) with a justification of the selections made (of persons interviewed).
- Eventual limitations of the survey.
- A presentation of the findings and the analysis thereof (including unexpected, relevant findings). All key priority areas above should be addressed, paying attention to gender issues.
- Conclusions, which will analyse the various research questions. Conclusions should be derived from findings and analysis thereof.
- Recommendations should be clearly related to conclusions but presented separately. Recommendations should be practical and if necessary, divided up for various actors or stakeholders.
Report appendices that include:
- The Terms of Reference.
- The technique used for data collection (including the people interviewed);
- The list of questions used or ‘interview guide’ or topic list (also for possible group discussions).
- Concepts and list of abbreviations.
- List of documents and bibliography.
- Composition baseline team
- Baseline Duration and Reporting
A total of 30 calendar days will constitute the baseline period; an estimated 5 days to prepare relevant tools and review documentation, 20 days for data collection, 5 days for compiling the information gathered, analyse, draft and complete the baseline report. The consultant will arrange for a feedback meeting to share a draft of the baseline report with the programme staff. A final report will then be provided after including the comments. The consultant will share the final report with stakeholders in a two (2) days stakeholders’ workshop. Probable date for the baseline survey to commence will be on the 31st of August 2020.
- Profile of Consultant(s)
The consultant(s) should have the following qualifications/expertise:
- Post graduate degree in international relations, natural resource management, Agriculture, economics, or others as may be relevant
- 5 years’ experience of carrying out programme baselines and research
- 5 years’ experience and knowledge of governance, human rights, gender and participatory development programmes
- Knowledge of coffee industry in Tanzania
- Experience of working with local communities, non-governmental organisations and government in areas agriculture production and value chain
- Experience in the design and use of participatory methods for assessment and evaluation
- Excellent writing, editing, attention to detail and organisational skills
- Fluency in English and Kiswahili
- Baseline fees and modalities of remuneration
The consultant and Vi Agroforestry will agree on the remuneration rate per person/day. Charges related to taxes, mission allowances for fieldwork and secretarial fees are to be borne by the consultant. As part of this negotiation process, the consultant should propose the fees s/he wishes to charge noting that Vi Agroforestry will cover the transportation costs to and from the field assignments and accommodation during the field work. The consultant will therefore provide online database and data collection tools that will be accessible by the contracting authority for monitoring the progress.
- How To Apply
The offer should contain:
- A letter of interest addressed to the Country Manager for Vi Agroforestry
- A Technical offer showing the interpretation of the ToR and indicating a detailed proposed methodology
- A CV of the consultant or consultancy firm showing previous relevant experience
- A detailed financial offer (expressed in Tanzanian Shillings indicating the cost required for the undertaking of the work required)
Submissions should include: ‘Expression of Interest to Conduct Baseline Survey’ in the subject box.